In terms of its structure, it is known that SARS-CoV-2 is a positive–sense and single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) virus whose genome is approximately 30 kilobases (kB). Non-structural proteins play a crucial role in viral replication, whereby the four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 which include the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) nucleocapsid (N) proteins, are encoded by the last third of the genome.
The N and S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are the primary target for vaccine and therapeutic development through the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for neutralising infection. Several immune sera-derived polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are available, however there are few mAbs available for use to combat infection. It must be noted that mAbs are very specific and recognise a single epitope unlike pAbs which recognise multiple epitopes (READ MORE).
A recent paper by Mishra, et al., aimed to identify and describe the type of antibodies produced against nine SARS-CoV-2 proteins (Figure 1). In this present study, 18 fab-phage clones were identified and which bound to nine SARS-CoV-2 proteins.
In short the researchers suggest that mAbs availability may help improve the characterisation of host-viral interactions, in addition to improving our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology.
Journal article: Mishra, N., et al., 2022. Development of monoclonal antibodies to detect for SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology.
Summary by Stefan Botha