Interleukin (IL)-31 is a neuroimmune cytokine which is involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis through the maintainnance of an inflammatory state and pruritus (Figure 1).
Lidia Sans-de San Nicolàs, et al., studied IL-31 production by memory cells following cell culture, cytokine quantification and gene analysis. The authors investigated IL-31 production by memory T cells cultured with autologous lesional epidermal atopic dermatitis cells under HDM stimulation. Two groups were defined – group 1, where IL-31 was produced by CLA+ cells and group 2, without IL-31 production. A higher inflammatory phenotype was observed in group 1 when compared to group 2.
In group 1, a correlation was found between IL-31 production and HDM specific IgE and total IgE. Furthermore IL-31 production by memory T cells was found to be associated with higher levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-22, IL-17A with equal expression to IL-13. Between the two groups of patients, an increased level of IgE specific to HDM was found in group 1.
To further characterize group 1 and 2, the authors evaluated changes in lesional skin tissue from patients using gene array analysis finding that in group 1, IL-17 and IL-21 mRNA expression was higher. Finally, high levels of IgE was observed in patients with IL-31 production by memory T cells, specific to the CLA+ subset.
From these results, the authors could hypothesise about an correlation between IL-31, periostin and CCL27 which act like a chemokine to CLA+ T cells. In addition, they described limited production of IL-31 by T cells to CLA+ cells subset which reflect specific mechanisms taking place in A.D and others cutaneous diseases.
Journal article: Sans-de San Nicolàs, L., et al., 2023. Allergen sensitization stratifies IL-31 production by memory T cells in atopic dermatitis patients. Frontiers in Immunology.
Summary by Frederic Christian Diaz