Atopic dermatitis or cutaneous eczema is a chronic, very complex disease which involves many factors such as genetic predisposition, environment factors, commorbidities, skin barrier dysregulation and pathological microorganisms colonization (READ MORE).
The skin microbiome is characterised by various bacterial and fungal species which plays a great role in the skin biological stability.
Koh, et al., suggested that microorganisms like Staphylococcus hominis , epidermidis and lugdunensis make biochemichal molecules that inhibit S.aureus proliferation on skin ; these molecules induced an immune regulation mechanism through the blockade of cytokines such as IL17, IL22 (Figure 1). Furthemore, other bacterial microorganisms like Cutibacterium acnes play a compounding role in atopic dermatitis pathophysiology ; this is seen through the inhibition of S.aureus and other pathological microorganisms development with bi-products formed from glycerol fermentation; In addition, supporting S.aureus proliferation as aggregation and biofilm formation facilitators.
Other microorganisms such as fungi (malassezia spp) plays an important role in the atopic dermatitis physiopathology through hyper activation of immune cells and cytokines extravasation.
Koh, et al., explained that new therapeutical insights developed by scientist is based on probiotics to restore and maintain the skin microbiome or genetic tools like CRISPR/cas9 to edit new specific microbes with antibiotic sensitivity by genetic engineering; Other forms of genetic manipulation could be introduced with plasmids or phages. The aim of these therapeutics is to induce an immuno-regulation mechanism and neutralised the pathological effects of the microbiome.
Otherwise this possible role of skin microbiome in therapy of atopic dermatitis, microbes can be use in diagnostic classification or endotype establishment with clinical algorithm and biological analyses.
Journal article : Koh, et al., 2022. Skin microbiome of atopic dermatitis. Allergology International.
Summary by Frederic Diaz