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ALAI/SMI Highlight:  Have you heard of IL-40?

15th June 2018

The closing plenary lecture at the Latin America Congress was presented by Albert Zlotnik from the University of California, Irvine. One of the highlights of Albert Zlotnik talk was the discovery of IL-40, by his research group, which was recently

IL-4–producing B cells shift T cells to Th2 responses

29th September, 2017

T helper (Th) 2 cells have been shown to be important in protection against Schistosoma mansoni while increasing susceptibility to Leishmania major. Researchers…

Redirecting Cytotoxicity

Cell-based Cancer Therapies Cytotoxicity is a property of some immune cells to induce lysis of other cells that can be detected as non-functional or transformed. In the recent years, redirecting cytotoxicity in cancer has been the base of cell-based cancer therapies that involve the use of living cells to treat cancer. There are several types Read More

Modulation of Peripheral Tolerance

Introduction Immunological tolerance describes a diverse range of host processes that prevent potentially harmful immune responses within that host (1). A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with minimal collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to Read More

Enhancing B Cell Memory: The Role of Autophagy and the RUBCN Protein

04 October 2023

A recent study led by researchers identified a shorter isoform of the protein Rubicon called RUBCN100. This isoform was found to enhance autophagy in B cells…

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Genetics and Mechanisms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) encompasses chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Genetic factors are key contributors to IBD susceptibility, and understanding candidate genes is crucial to comprehend the disease’s complex pathogenesis. Murine models serve as valuable tools to study Read More

Viral Infections and Mucosal Immunity

HIV, the Microbiome and Cellular Immunity   HIV in infants Of the 2.1 million children under the age of 15 that live with HIV infection, 90% of those are in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 1/3 of infants born in Sub-Saharan Africa have been exposed to maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment. Majority of HIV is Read More

Gut Inflammation

Innate Epithelial Barrier Defense In the gastrointestinal tract it is of paramount importance to host health that the intestinal micro­biota is kept at a distance from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), minimizing the likelihood of tissue damage and invasion. Innate immune strategies include the use of a mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and innate lymphoid cells Read More

The Microbiome

Introduction The term ‘microbiota’ defines the community of symbiotic microbes including bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that have established their own niches within a host and provide supporting roles in host immunity and metabolism. Some commensals organisms are often referred to as “pathobionts” because they can cause disease under certain conditions. The intestinal tract Read More

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University