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ALAI/SMI Highlight:  Have you heard of IL-40?

15th June 2018

The closing plenary lecture at the Latin America Congress was presented by Albert Zlotnik from the University of California, Irvine. One of the highlights of Albert Zlotnik talk was the discovery of IL-40, by his research group, which was recently

IL-4–producing B cells shift T cells to Th2 responses

29th September, 2017

T helper (Th) 2 cells have been shown to be important in protection against Schistosoma mansoni while increasing susceptibility to Leishmania major. Researchers…

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Genetics and Mechanisms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) encompasses chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Genetic factors are key contributors to IBD susceptibility, and understanding candidate genes is crucial to comprehend the disease’s complex pathogenesis. Murine models serve as valuable tools to study Read More

Viral Infections and Mucosal Immunity

HIV, the Microbiome and Cellular Immunity   HIV in infants Of the 2.1 million children under the age of 15 that live with HIV infection, 90% of those are in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 1/3 of infants born in Sub-Saharan Africa have been exposed to maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment. Majority of HIV is Read More

Gut Inflammation

Innate Epithelial Barrier Defense In the gastrointestinal tract it is of paramount importance to host health that the intestinal micro­biota is kept at a distance from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), minimizing the likelihood of tissue damage and invasion. Innate immune strategies include the use of a mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and innate lymphoid cells Read More

The Microbiome

Introduction The term ‘microbiota’ defines the community of symbiotic microbes including bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that have established their own niches within a host and provide supporting roles in host immunity and metabolism. Some commensals organisms are often referred to as “pathobionts” because they can cause disease under certain conditions. The intestinal tract Read More

Allergen sensitization – insights into atopic dermatitis and other skin disorders

24 July 2023

In a recent study, researchers investigated interleukin (IL)-31 and its role in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis through the maintainnance of an inflammatory state and pruritus…

Central and Peripheral Tolerance

Introduction Erlich put forward the term ‘horror autotoxicus’ to refer to the body’s aversion to immunological self-destruction, and postulated that mechanisms must prevent reaction against self Healthy individuals have a smouldering autoimmune response that can escape control (a system of many checks and balances) to cause autoimmune disorders A major area of interest is how Read More

B Cell Activation and Plasma Cell Differentiation

Activation of B cells There are two main immune responses that can drive the activation of resting B-cells, and these are termed as T-cell dependent and independent immune responses. Resting B cells become activated by antigen via the BCR and/or by microbiological side products (pathogen associated molecular patterns; PAMPs) via their toll like receptors (TLR4, Read More

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University