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Introduction In a clinical setting, the term transplantation generally refers to the transfer or replacement of cells, tissues, or organs from one individual to another. The source of the transplant can either be a person’s own body, another human, or another species. In the human, with the exception of transplantation of one’s own tissues, where Read More

Regulation of Immunity & the Microbiome

Introduction The human gut is colonized by microbiota early in life. It is now recognized that bacteria in the gut have many beneficial function and play a key role in immune system development and protection against pathogens. At birth, the infant gut is sterile, and becomes colonized with bacteria during delivery. Thereafter, the microbial content Read More

Infectious Diseases Immunology

Introduction Dealing with potentially harmful organisms is one of the main functions of the immune system.  Many of the tools the immune system use are indeed general and also used for instance, to protect against cancerous cells and trauma.  These tools include physical barriers, phagocytosis, inflammation (the hallmark of innate immunity), and antigen presentation.  Of Read More

B Cell Activation and Plasma Cell Differentiation

B Cell Activation Resting B cells become activated by antigen via the BCR and/or by microbiological side products (pathogen associated molecular patterns; PAMP) via their toll like receptors (TLR4, 7, 9 in mice) and start to proliferate. Protein antigens become internalized, digested and presented to T cells as peptides via MHCII. Cognate B cell / Read More

The Innate Immune System

Mononuclear Phagocytes Produce Key Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes and macrophages) are essential for the development of inflammation and together with neutrophils are the phagocytic cells involved in the clearance of inert particles and microbial agents. Monocytes are bone marrow-derived cells and are continuously released into the blood. When these cells are recruited Read More

A Snapshot of the Immune System

The host, via its immune system, has the capacity to recognize materials as foreign to itself and to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize them with or without injury to its own tissue(s). This ability to differentiate ‘self’ from ‘nonself’ constitutes the basic hallmark of the immune response and the basis for an understanding of clinical immunology Read More

Basics of Anti-infectious Immunity

In this section we will discuss: the non-self-signals recognition by innate immunity at barrier sites, the anti-infectious effector immune responses, the pathogens’ mechanisms to escape immune responses and the host microbiota interactions across the gut immune system, Non-self-signals recognition by innate immunity: Host microbe interactions at barrier sites Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by Read More

I’ve been coughing for so long

Jade, 20 years-old, has had episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea since the age of 12, especially at night, associated with coughing and chest tightness, sometimes with wheezing. For 1 year now, attacks have been more frequent, almost daily, also occurring during the day.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions Although, the immune system is primarily programmed to protect our body against microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, unexpected excesses of the immune response may lead to disease states. The excessive immune responses are usually referred to as hypersensitivity reactions. The term hypersensitivity (HS) should be used to describe objectively reproducible symptoms Read More

TB biomarker based on anti-Ag85B and 4 inflammatory molecules.

4th December

We report findings from a recently published article “A rapid triage test for active pulmonary tuberculosis in adult patients with persistent cough”(Ahmed et al., 2019).Ahmed et al., “hypothesized that a blood protein-based…

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University