In 1964, Bernard Amos organized the First International Histocompatibility Workshop (IHWS) at Duke University, North Carolina, USA, where participants compared various techniques for the detection of human leukocyte antigens. This led to the start of a very productive international collaborative program, which contributed significantly to further define the HLA loci with their multiple alleles. It also discussed the methods to be used for the detection of HLA alleles, and paved the way for studies on the anthropological significance of HLA polymorphism, clinical meaning of HLA and disease associations, and influence of donor-recipient HLA matching and antibody determination in organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Seventeen such workshops have already been organized, while the 18th IHWS is planned for May 2021 in Amsterdam.
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