Figure: During infection in rice blast fungus, chitin from its cell wall breaks down into chitosan and acetic acid. This process stimulates cell differentiation in the host plant, leading to appressorium formation, which then facilitates the infection process.

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University