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Phosphatidylserine-positive extracellular vesicles – boosting effector CD8+ T cell responses

14 April 2023

A new study has shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a crucial role in boosting T cell effector functions during viral infections…

PSGL-1 regulates CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion

04 May 2023

In a recent study, researchers described the role of a protein called PSGL-1 in the regulation of T cell exhaustion…

T cell and Ab-mediated autoimmune diseases

T cell mediated autoimmune diseases Introduction Patients with T cell defects can present with a variety of organ specific autoimmune diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes mellitus in infancy, hypothyroidism, and Addison’s disease) caused by the attack on these organs by the patient’s own immune cells. The basis for these clinical complications is unclear, but are Read More

Infectious Diseases Immunology

Introduction Dealing with potentially harmful organisms is one of the main functions of the immune system.  Many of the tools the immune system use are indeed general and also used for instance, to protect against cancerous cells and trauma.  These tools include physical barriers, phagocytosis, inflammation (the hallmark of innate immunity), and antigen presentation.  Of Read More

Understanding of Host-Pathogen Interaction & Applications (SARS-CoV-2)

SARS-CoV-2 origin and transmission Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in December 2019, is the etiological agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has zoonotic origin and shares genomic similarity with other zoonotic viruses responsible for SARS (SARS-CoV-1) and MERS (MERS CoV EMC/2012). The discovery that its closest identified viral relatives are enzootic Read More

A novel pathway of immune and host cell evasion by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

18 August 2021

Researchers from the University of Maryland and the US National Institutes of Health have discovered a novel pathway of host cell manipulation and innate immune evasion by Mtb. They have shown that the Mtb limits activation of a host cell defense complex, the inflammasome.

Exaggerated immune response to Covid-19

Effective host immune responses are required for optimum viral control. Immune reactions to a viral threat, on the contrary, could also be harmful to the host if the response is excessive. Huang et al. noted that upon infection with Covid-19, the initial levels of inflammatory cytokines e.g. IL1β were higher…


Neutrophils in Innate Immunity Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes and are the most abundant white blood cells, accounting for 50-70% of circulating leukocytes in human blood. Mature neutrophils are characterized by their segmented nuclei and cytosolic granules. Neutrophils develop from myeloid precursors in the bone marrow, after which they move into the blood. They circulate until they Read More

Lipid profiles key step to preventing breast cancer metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

15th October

Early detection of breast cancer offers curable options, however, once metastasized the cancer cannot be cured. With higher rates of breast cancer correlated with western diet consumption…

TGF-beta superfamily in infections and diseases

TGF-β is part of a large protein family comprising 33 members that are divided into subfamilies based on structural variations Effects of ligands of the TGF-β superfamily are mediated through serine threonine kinase receptors type I and type II, which act as heterodimers. Two co-receptors, endoglin (CD105) and betaglycan alter the response to various ligands Read More

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University