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Suppression in the Context of Disease

Immunological systems function as soldiers to resist illness, but under some circumstances, the soldiers are reprogrammed to limit immunological response. These specific circumstances appear in cancer and illness.  These reprogrammed immune cells are one of the most exciting areas of study and targeting them can be extremely useful to patients.   These immunosuppressive cells are broadly Read More

Modulation of Peripheral Tolerance

Introduction Immunological tolerance describes a diverse range of host processes that prevent potentially harmful immune responses within that host (1). A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with minimal collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to Read More

Cytokine storm – insights into new treatments

22 January 2024

In a recent study, researchers identified a method to block IL-6 signals to treat cytokine release syndrome, with minimised side effects…

Severe COVID-19 may change your innate immune system

01 September 2023

In a recent study, researchers have uncovered how severe cases of COVID-19 can lead to enduring alterations in the innate immune system…

Colorectal Cancer

Colon carcinogenesis Carcinogenesis refers to the process by which normal cells transform into cancerous cells, and it involves genetic and epigenetic alterations that disrupt normal cellular functions, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Colon carcinogenesis is a stepwise process initiated by genetic and epigenetic alterations, leading to the activation of oncogenes (e.g., KRAS) and Read More

Viral Infections and Mucosal Immunity

HIV, the Microbiome and Cellular Immunity   HIV in infants Of the 2.1 million children under the age of 15 that live with HIV infection, 90% of those are in Sub-Saharan Africa. At least 1/3 of infants born in Sub-Saharan Africa have been exposed to maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment. Majority of HIV is Read More

Gut Inflammation

Innate Epithelial Barrier Defense In the gastrointestinal tract it is of paramount importance to host health that the intestinal micro­biota is kept at a distance from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), minimizing the likelihood of tissue damage and invasion. Innate immune strategies include the use of a mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and innate lymphoid cells Read More

The Microbiome

Introduction The term ‘microbiota’ defines the community of symbiotic microbes including bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that have established their own niches within a host and provide supporting roles in host immunity and metabolism. Some commensals organisms are often referred to as “pathobionts” because they can cause disease under certain conditions. The intestinal tract Read More

Gut Mucosal Immunity

The GI tract Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease associated with the accumulation of dental plaque (referred to as dental biofilm/biofilm), characterized by the progressive destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. (Kwon et al., 2021) During inflammation, defense cells release certain endogenous biological molecules such Read More

International Union of Immunological SocietiesUniversity of South AfricaInstitute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineElizabeth Glazer Pediatric Aids FoundationStellenbosch University